Hall continued his efforts to help his community, and in his petition for Boston to approve funding for black schools. Cambridge, U.
Founded on resentment of the way Whites historically treated people of color, the Nation of Islam embraces the ideas of black nationalism. Farrakhan organized the Million Man March inwhich drew upward ofblack men to Washington, D. Reacting against white racial prejudice and critical of the gap between American democratic ideals and the reality of segregation and discrimination in America, in the s black nationalists criticized the methods of Martin Luther King, Jr.
There was not much support for this idea before the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of Among their business activities were laundromats, restaurants, and a newspaper, Muhammad Speaks. Parascandola, After the death of Elijah Muhammad inone of his sons, Warith Deen Muhammad, took control of the organization and adopted Sunni Islamic beliefs and practices.
Woodsonwho emphasized the teaching of African history as a way of counteracting feelings of inferiority inculcated in black Americans through centuries of subordination by whites.
The latter became a major presence in the United States and elsewhere with the emergence of the Jamaican activist Marcus Garveywho promoted the idea of an African diaspora and called for a separate African state for black Americans.