Plato s influence and contributions
His reasons for setting up the Academy were to train young men who would become better statesmen.
The poor, unable to hold excess in check, demanded a complete redistribution of landed property and the dividing of it into equal shares. Under the leadership of the intellect, the soul must free itself from greed, lust, and other degrading vices, and direct itself to the divine.
Plato's belief was that opinion is derived from the effervescent world of sensory perception and can hence never be considered certain whereas true knowledge is derived from the world of timeless Forms. When was Plato alive? Most people, corrupted as they are, are for him fundamentally irrational, driven by their appetites, egoistic passions, and informed by false beliefs. The best government can be founded only on beautiful and well-ordered souls. Born in a rich and affluent Athenian family Plato desired to become a politician but as he grew older he was repulsed by Athenian dictators and drawn towards Socratic thought. But then the questions come who are eligible for this job so Plato has a solution that is to be conscious and select special people. It contains the description of Socrates last few days in the cell alone. Then, in the Laws, the reign of the best individuals is replaced by the reign of the finest laws instituted by a judicious legislator c-d. The inventor of written dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy, and the founder of the first institution of higher learning in the Western world, Plato has left a truly indelible mark in world history.
They are required to counteract the destabilizing effects of false beliefs on society. A political order based on fairness leads to friendship and cooperation among different parts of the city.
Especially in the Laws he makes clear that freedom is one of the main values of society d. For Plato, it was out of the question the possibility of buying land or having a market for land. Plato travelled in Egypt, Sicily and Italy. Nobody can be wicked and happy a-c. In metaphysics Plato envisioned a systematic, rational treatment of the forms and their interrelations, starting with the most fundamental among them the Good , or the One ; in ethics and moral psychology he developed the view that the good life requires not just a certain kind of knowledge as Socrates had suggested but also habituation to healthy emotional responses and therefore harmony between the three parts of the soul according to Plato, reason , spirit, and appetite. In Republic, the four virtues of courage, wisdom, temperance and justice are recommended for a good community and among them Plato reasons that justice is the most important. The philosopher-rulers enjoy respect and contemplative leisure, but not wealth or honors; the guardian class, the second class in the city, military honors, but not leisure or wealth; and the producer class, family life, wealth, and freedom of enterprise, but not honors or rule. He authored philosophical works of unparalleled influences. His world-view is based on unexamined opinions. Communication based on false beliefs, such as statements of ideology, is still possible, but seems limited, dividing people into factions, and, as history teaches us, can finally lead only to confusion. It is not the case, as Aristotle and most western social thinkers until the early 18th century had it, that exchange only concerns the "surplus" of production.
After he completed his reform, he left Athens in order to see whether it would stand the test of time, and returned to his country only ten years later. It is believed that he traveled extensively during this period and returned 12 years later in BC.
In the great majority of cases only one decision is possible, but there are instances—some of crucial importance—where several courses can be adopted and where the resulting readings have widely differing import.
Courage is not merely military courage but primarily civic courage: the ability to preserve the right, law-inspired belief, and stand in defense of such values as friendship and freedom on which a good society is founded.
This happens when the city is built in an imperfect place.
It is his work upon which the philosophers who succeeded him built their wide-ranging and varied theories and ideals.
The three other virtues describe qualities of different social groups.
Contribution of plato in philosophy of education
In Italy he learned of the work of Pythagoras, and came to appreciate the value of mathematics. His claim to rule is that he is the best. The nickname might refer from the width of his shoulders or forehead or from the breadth of his style. And he insists that dogs have a "philosophical nature," because they are soft toward those whom they know their master and his flock , but aggressive against those whom they do not know — a clear sign, in Plato's eyes, that they love knowledge and hate ignorance. Plato's main contributions are in philosophy, mathematics and science. Markets and money are mere conveniences for distributing the products of the citizens. In his political philosophy, the clarification of concepts is thus a preliminary step in evaluating beliefs, and right beliefs in turn lead to an answer to the question of the best political order. Although Plato is well known for his negative remarks about much great literature , in the Symposium he depicts literature and philosophy as the offspring of lovers, who gain a more lasting posterity than do parents of mortal children. In his position, he could easily have become the tyrant over the city, but he did not seek power for himself. Others have employed a variant of this convention in which capitalization is used to indicate a special way in which Plato is supposed to have thought of the forms during a certain period i. Let us pause here for a moment to appreciate this fundamental insight, addressing the Greek philosopher in the immortal words of our greatest poet: "A word momentous calmly hast thou spoken! The phenomena are the physical world that we experience; it is a flawed echo of the perfect, ideal model that exists outside of space and time. At the other extreme was a type of translation that aimed to be useful to serious students and professional philosophers who did not know Greek; its goal was to indicate as clearly as possible the philosophical potentialities of the text, however much readability suffered in consequence.
The economic implication is that the division of labor further increases.
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