In the bracket notation of functional analysis Dennery and Krzywicky, the functions, also called vectors, being elements of base of linear independent functions in equation 11 yield or, more simply, Thus elements of the new base will be orthonormal and may be written or simply.
Heat capacity and specific heat As shown originally by Count Rumfordthere is an equivalence between heat measured in calories and mechanical work measured in joules with a definite conversion factor between the two.
Further Information For an introductory chemistry text see L. Equations of state The equation of state for a substance provides the additional information required to calculate the amount of work that the substance does in making a transition from one equilibrium state to another along some specified path.
Solid - The volume of a solid will generally change very little with a change in temperature. A simple potential of interaction of solid spheres with radius a is widely used as a model for the description of repulsive forces in the system: which characterizes the limit state of a highly-compressed and hot liquid.
While he did not evaluate the coefficients of the expansion, the two first terms are virtually identical with van der Waals' expression. These give reasonable estimates of the relationships between pressure, volume and temperature but do not describe the opalescence or unique chemical properties very near the critical point.
For changes in temperature and pressure, elastomers can be considered to be solids although much softer than other solids.