Given the comorbidity of depression and HIV, an integrated treatment approach may increase access to mental health care and improve HIV-related outcomes [ 19 ]. Corresponding author.
Participants with missing items did not differ significantly from those with complete responses in terms of age, race, pain frequency or pain intensity, although males tended to have more missing items than females These participants were excluded from analyses leaving participants.
For these reasons, several screening instruments have been used to detect depression early.
The primary aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of the CDI in a large, multisite sample of treatment-seeking youth with chronic pain using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.
Several studies in adult pain samples have used factor analysis of similar measures of depression to examine the specific influence of somatic symptoms on total and subscale scores.
The CDI has established good reliability and validity for describing depressive symptoms, 78 has good correlation with other scales, 9 and high prediction validity for suicidal ideas. Within each site, half of the sample was randomly assigned to exploratory factor analysis EFA and the other half to confirmatory factor analysis CFA.
Other potentially meaningful differences were observed between groups, although they did not achieve statistical significance. Therefore, although many clinicians and researchers have applied the CDI in their practice or research, there is still ambiguity about the diagnostic threshold of depression.
Clinical global impression-severity The CGI-S rates the severity of the patient's illness, on a 7-point scale ranging from 1 normal to 7 extremely Illaccording to the clinician's experience of patients suffering from the same condition.