Characteristics of ghb gamma hydroxybutyrate

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Population level monitoring of GHB use is limited [ 29 ], and the indirect information provided by ambulance records can provide a current overview of GHB overdoses in the city. Most of the patients required further treatment and transport.

Characteristics of ghb gamma hydroxybutyrate

Urine is often the preferred specimen for routine drug abuse monitoring purposes. Co-administration with other CNS depressants such as alcohol or benzodiazepines can result in an additive effect potentiation , as they all bind to gamma-aminobutyric acid or "GABA" receptor sites. Several key variables about suspected overdoses were extracted from the caller-database and patient records. Due to the ease of manufacture and the availability of its precursors, it is not usually produced in illicit laboratories like other synthetic drugs, but in private homes by low level producers. Combination with alcohol potentiates these effects, especially respiratory depression and hypotension [ 10 , 18 ]. This information can give insight into distinct user groups and patterns of use, which can in turn be used to monitor and guide treatment and prevention interventions. These included: date, time, age and gender of the patient, location, the presenting symptoms, suspected drug ingested, and to where the patient was transported if not treated and left at scene. Bergen is the second largest city in Norway, with a population of approximately , [ 30 ]. This may explain the respiratory arrest that has been reported after ingestion of both drugs. Age comparison with gender was done using the Mann-Whitney U test. While available as a prescription for the rare and severe forms of sleep disorder narcolepsy in most of Europe, GHB was banned in the U. Increasing occurrences of fatal poisonings and deaths in which GBL was probably involved, as well as more international focus on this drug was the reason that also GBL was classified as a narcotic and therefore prohibited in Norway in March [ 22 ]. As the serotonergic system may be involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and anxiety, the stimulation of this system by high doses of GHB may be involved in certain neuropharmacological events induced by GHB administration. With high affinity, GHB binds to excitatory GHB receptors that are densely expressed throughout the brain, including the cotex and hippocampus. GHB is "colourless and odorless".

Given its availability, affordability, and lack of awareness of risks, there is a common misconception among users that the drug is relatively safe. Consequently, the evidence and the identification of the perpetrator of the rape is often difficult.

Gbl

Patients that responded to naloxone, an opioid antagonist, were considered to have had an opioid overdose and were therefore not included in this study. Ambulance records have been used to investigate epidemiological trends for a variety of issues [ 26 — 28 ]. Most of the patients required further treatment and transport. GABA itself is also listed as an illegal drug in these jurisdictions, which seems unusual given its failure to cross the blood—brain barrier, but there was a perception among legislators that all known analogues should be covered as far as this was possible. That is to say that, over time, the concentration of GHB in the system decreases below the threshold for significant GABAB receptor activation and activates predominantly the GHB receptor, leading to wakefulness. The effects of GHB can last from 1. GBL and 1,4-B are normally found as pure liquids, but they may be mixed with other more harmful solvents when intended for industrial use, e.

GHB's effect on dopamine release is biphasic. This enzyme appears to be induced by cAMP levels, [73] meaning substances that elevate cAMP, such as forskolin and vinpocetinemay increase GHB synthesis and release.

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Other prodrugs, such as 1,4-butanediol 1,4-Balso have their own toxicity concerns. The clinical hallmark of GHB poisoning is rapid onset of coma, with respiratory depression, hypoventilation and bradycardia [ 11 — 13 ].

Primarily these cases involve alcohol and opioids, particularly heroin [ 45 ].

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Since it is a naturally occurring substance, its physiological action is similar to that of some endogenous neurotransmitters in mammalian brain. Data source Emergency calls are coded based on caller information and entered electronically into a database.

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Intoxication with GHB/GBL: characteristics and trends from ambulance