An analysis of the effects of stress
Short term effects of stress
Washington, DC: Am. This example of behaviorally induced gene expression shows how highly nurtured rats develop into low-anxiety adults, who in turn become nurturing mothers with reduced stress responses. Furthermore, there is evidence that stressful life events are causal for the onset of depression see Hammen , Kendler et al. Cardiovascular psychophysiology. Across a variety of situations, some individuals tend to show stress responses associated with active coping, whereas others tend to show stress responses more associated with aversive vigilance Kasprowicz et al. Exposure to terrorism, stress-related mental health symptoms, and coping behaviors among a nationally representative sample in Israel. But in individuals with autoimmune disease or CHD, prolonged stress can cause proinflammatory cytokine production to remain chronically activated, leading to an exacerbation of pathophysiology and symptomatology.
Psychological effects of stress
Exposure to intense and chronic stressors during the developmental years has long-lasting neurobiological effects and puts one at increased risk for anxiety and mood disorders, aggressive dyscontrol problems, hypo-immune dysfunction, medical morbidity, structural changes in the CNS, and early death Shaw Although research has yet to link poor vaccination responses to early mortality, influenza and other infectious illnesses are a major cause of mortality in the elderly, even among those who have received vaccinations e.
These are intriguing hypotheses that emphasize the role that stressors may play in disease.
The immune system responds to vascular injury just as it would any other wound: Immune cells migrate to and infiltrate the arterial wall, setting off a cascade of biochemical processes that can ultimately lead to a thrombosis i.
Energy is then distributed to the organs that need it most by increasing blood pressure levels and contracting certain blood vessels while dilating others. These included: a having only patients with the same type and severity of cancer within each group, b creation of a supportive environment, c having an educational component, and d provision of stress-management and coping-skills training.
This example of behaviorally induced gene expression shows how highly nurtured rats develop into low-anxiety adults, who in turn become nurturing mothers with reduced stress responses. Inflammation, depressive symptomatology, and coronary artery disease.
Furthermore, there is evidence that stressful life events are causal for the onset of depression see HammenKendler et al. Studies of life-extending psychosocial interventions.
based on 74 review